This appendix is a reference to the chords that MMA recognizes and name/value tables for drum and instrument names. The tables have been auto-generated by MMA using the -D options.
MMA recognizes standard chord names as listed below. The names are case sensitive and must be entered in uppercase letters as shown:
A A A B B B C C C D D D E E E F F F G G G
Please note that in your input files you must use a lowercase ``b'' or an ``&'' to represent a and a ``#'' for a .
All ``7th'' chords are ``dominant 7th'' unless specifically noted as ``major''. A dominant 7th has a flattened 7th note (in a C7 chord this is a b; a C Major 7th chord has a b).
For a more detailed listing of the chords, notes and scales you should download the document www.mellowood.ca/mma/chords.pdf.gz.
The following types of chords are recognized (these are case sensitive and must be in the mixed upper and lowercase shown):
|(add9)||Major chord plus sharp 9th (no 7th.)|
|(add9)||Major chord plus 9th (no 7th.)|
|(add9)||Major chord plus flat 9th (no 7th.)|
|(5)||Major triad with flat 5th.|
|+7||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th.|
|+79||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th and sharp 9th.|
|+79||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th and flat 9th.|
|+7911||Augmented 7th with flat 9th and sharp 11th.|
|+9||7th plus 9th with sharp 5th (same as aug9).|
|+9M7||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a major 7th and 9th.|
|+M7||Major 7th with sharp 5th.|
|11||9th chord plus 11th (3rd not voiced).|
|115||Augmented 11th (sharp 5).|
|11+||Augmented 11th (sharp 5).|
|119||7th chord plus flat 9th and 11th.|
|13||7th (including 5th) plus 13th (the 9th and 11th are not voiced).|
|1311||7th plus sharp 11th and 13th (9th not voiced).|
|139||7th (including 5th) plus 13th and sharp 9th (11th not voiced).|
|135||7th with flat 5th, plus 13th (the 9th and 11th are not voiced).|
|139||7th (including 5th) plus 13th and flat 9th (11th not voiced).|
|13sus||7sus, plus 9th and 13th|
|13sus4||7sus, plus 9th and 13th|
|13sus9||7sus, plus flat 9th and 13th|
|5||Altered Fifth or Power Chord; root and 5th only.|
|6||Major tiad with added 6th.|
|6(add9)||6th with added 9th. This is sometimes notated as a slash chord in the form ``6/9''.|
|69||6th with added 9th. This is sometimes notated as a slash chord in the form ``6/9''.|
|711||7th plus sharp 11th (9th omitted).|
|75||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th.|
|759||7th with sharp 5th and sharp 9th.|
|759||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th and flat 9th.|
|79||7th with sharp 9th.|
|7911||7th plus sharp 9th and sharp 11th.|
|7913||7th with sharp 9th and flat 13th.|
|7(6)||7th with added 6th.|
|7(add13)||7th with added 13th.|
|7(omit3)||7th with unvoiced 3rd.|
|7+||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th.|
|7+5||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th.|
|7+9||7th with sharp 9th.|
|7-5||7th, flat 5.|
|7-9||7th with flat 9th.|
|7alt||Uses a 7th flat 5, flat 9. Probably not correct, but works (mostly).|
|713||7th (including 5th) plus flat 13th (the 9th and 11th are not voiced).|
|75||7th, flat 5.|
|759||7th with flat 5th and sharp 9th.|
|75(add13)||7th with flat 5 and 13th.|
|759||7th with flat 5th and flat 9th.|
|79||7th with flat 9th.|
|7911||7th plus flat 9th and sharp 11th.|
|79sus||7th with suspended 4th and flat 9th.|
|7omit3||7th with unvoiced 3rd.|
|7sus||7th with suspended 4th, dominant 7th with 3rd raised half tone.|
|7sus2||A sus2 with dominant 7th added.|
|7sus4||7th with suspended 4th, dominant 7th with 3rd raised half tone.|
|7sus9||7th with suspended 4th and flat 9th.|
|9||7th plus 9th.|
|911||7th plus 9th and sharp 11th.|
|95||7th plus 9th with sharp 5th (same as aug9).|
|9+||7th plus 9th with sharp 5th (same as aug9).|
|9+5||7th plus 9th with sharp 5th (same as aug9).|
|9-5||7th plus 9th with flat 5th.|
|95||7th plus 9th with flat 5th.|
|96||9th with flat 6 (no 5th or 7th).|
|9sus||7sus plus 9th.|
|9sus4||7sus plus 9th.|
|M||Major triad. This is the default and is used in the absence of any other chord type specification.|
|M11||Major 9th plus 11th.|
|M13||Major 7th (including 5th) plus 13th (9th and 11th not voiced).|
|M1311||Major 7th plus sharp 11th and 13th (9th not voiced).|
|M6||Major tiad with added 6th.|
|M711||Major 7th plus sharp 11th (9th omitted).|
|M75||Major 7th with sharp 5th.|
|M7(add13)||7th (including 5th) plus 13th and flat 9th (11th not voiced).|
|M7+5||Major 7th with sharp 5th.|
|M7-5||Major 7th with a flat 5th.|
|M75||Major 7th with a flat 5th.|
|M9||Major 7th plus 9th.|
|M911||Major 9th plus sharp 11th.|
|add9||Major chord plus sharp 9th (no 7th.)|
|add9||Major chord plus 9th (no 7th.)|
|add9||Major chord plus flat 9th (no 7th.)|
|aug7||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th.|
|aug79||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th and sharp 9th.|
|aug79||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a dominant 7th and flat 9th.|
|aug9||7th plus 9th with sharp 5th (same as aug9).|
|aug9M7||An augmented chord (raised 5th) with a major 7th and 9th.|
|dim||A dim7, not a triad!|
|dim(13)||Diminished seventh, added flat 13th.|
|dim3||Diminished triad (non-standard notation).|
|dim7(addM7)||Diminished tirad with added Major 7th.|
|m5||Minor triad with augmented 5th.|
|m7||Minor Triad plus Major 7th. You will also see this printed as ``m(maj7)'', ``m+7'', ``min(maj7)'' and ``min7'' (which MMA accepts); as well as the MMA invalid forms: ``-(Δ7)'', and ``min7''.|
|m(add9)||Minor triad plus 9th (no 7th).|
|m(5)||Minor triad with flat 5th (aka dim).|
|m(maj7)||Minor Triad plus Major 7th. You will also see this printed as ``m(maj7)'', ``m+7'', ``min(maj7)'' and ``min7'' (which MMA accepts); as well as the MMA invalid forms: ``-(Δ7)'', and ``min7''.|
|m(sus9)||Minor triad plus 9th (no 7th).|
|m+||Minor triad with augmented 5th.|
|m+5||Minor triad with augmented 5th.|
|m+7||Minor Triad plus Major 7th. You will also see this printed as ``m(maj7)'', ``m+7'', ``min(maj7)'' and ``min7'' (which MMA accepts); as well as the MMA invalid forms: ``-(Δ7)'', and ``min7''.|
|m+79||Augmented minor 7 plus sharp 9th.|
|m+79||Augmented minor 7 plus flat 9th.|
|m+7911||Augmented minor 7th with flat 9th and sharp 11th.|
|m11||9th with minor 3rd, plus 11th.|
|m115||Minor 7th with flat 5th plus 11th.|
|m13||Minor 7th (including 5th) plus 13th (9th and 11th not voiced).|
|m6||Minor 6th (flat 3rd plus a 6th).|
|m6(add9)||Minor 6th with added 9th. This is sometimes notated as a slash chord in the form ``m6/9''.|
|m69||Minor 6th with added 9th. This is sometimes notated as a slash chord in the form ``m6/9''.|
|m7||Minor 7th (flat 3rd plus dominant 7th).|
|m75||Minor 7th with sharp 5th.|
|m79||Minor 7th with added sharp 9th.|
|m7(9)||Minor 7th with added sharp 9th.|
|m7(add11)||Minor 7th plus 11th.|
|m7(add13)||Minor 7th plus 13th.|
|m7(9)||Minor 7th with added flat 9th.|
|m7(omit5)||Minor 7th with unvoiced 5th.|
|m7-5||Minor 7th, flat 5 (aka 1/2 diminished).|
|m75||Minor 7th, flat 5 (aka 1/2 diminished).|
|m759||Minor 7th with flat 5th and flat 9th.|
|m79||Minor 7th with added flat 9th.|
|m7911||Minor 7th plus flat 9th and sharp 11th.|
|m7omit5||Minor 7th with unvoiced 5th.|
|m7sus||Minor suspended 4th, minor triad plus 4th and dominant 7th.|
|m7sus4||Minor suspended 4th, minor triad plus 4th and dominant 7th.|
|m9||Minor triad plus 7th and 9th.|
|m911||Minor 7th plus 9th and sharp 11th.|
|m95||Minor triad, flat 5, plus 7th and 9th.|
|mM7(add9)||Minor Triad plus Major 7th and 9th.|
|maj13||Major 7th (including 5th) plus 13th (9th and 11th not voiced).|
|maj9||Major 7th plus 9th.|
|m5||Minor triad with flat 5th (aka dim).|
|m9||Minor chord plus flat 9th (no 7th.)|
|msus||Minor suspended 4th, minor triad plus 4th.|
|msus4||Minor suspended 4th, minor triad plus 4th.|
|omit3(add9)||Triad: root, 5th and 9th.|
|omit3add9||Triad: root, 5th and 9th.|
|sus||Suspended 4th, major triad with the 3rd raised half tone.|
|sus(add9)||Suspended 4th, major triad with the 3rd raised half tone plus sharp 9th.|
|sus(add9)||Suspended 4th, major triad with the 3rd raised half tone plus 9th.|
|sus(add9)||Suspended 4th, major triad with the 3rd raised half tone plus flat 9th.|
|sus2||Suspended 2nd, major triad with the major 2nd above the root substituted for 3rd.|
|sus4||Suspended 4th, major triad with the 3rd raised half tone.|
|sus9||7sus plus 9th.|
|o||A dim7 using a degree symbol|
|o(addM7)||dim7(addM7) using degree symbol|
|o3||A dim3 (triad) using a degree symbol|
|ø||Half-diminished using slashed degree symbol|
A chord name without a type is interpreted as a major chord (or triad). For example, the chord ``C'' is identical to ``CM''.
There are also two not-chord items: ``z'' and ``z!''. These are MMA 's idea of rests. See details here.
MMA has an large set of defined chords. However, you can add your own with the DEFCHORD command, details here.
Depending on the key and chord sequence, a chord may end up in the wrong octave. This is caused by MMA 's internal routines which create a chord: all of the tables are maintained for a ``C'' chord and the others are derived from that point by subtracting or adding a constant. To compensate you can add leading ``-''s or ``+''s to the chordname to force the movement of that chord and scale up or down. You can have multiple ``+''s or ``-''s without internal limits, but in more cases anything more than three is just silly. If you find you're needing lots of octave adjustments, you might want to look at the octave setting in the underlying track.
For example, the following line will move the chord up and down for the third and fourth beats:
|Cm Fm -Gm +D7|
The effect of octave shifting is also highly dependent on the voicing options in effect for the track.
You'll have to listen to the MMA output to determine when and where to use this adjustment. Hopefully, it won't be needed all that much.
If you have a large number of chords to adjust, use the CHORDADJUST command , here.
According to Standardized Chord Symbol Notation altered chords should be written in the form Cmi 7(95). However, this is pretty hard to type (and parse). So, we've used the convention that the altered intervals should be written in numerical order: Cm759 (in this case the ``7'' is not ``altered'', it's part of the chord name). Also, note that we use ``m'' for ``minor'' which appears to be more the conventional method than ``mi''.
In some pop and jazz charts it is assumed that a diminished chord is always a diminished 7th ... a diminished triad is never played. MMA continues this, sometimes erroneous assumption.A.1 You can change the behavior in several ways: change the chord notes and scale for a ``dim'' from a dim7 to a triad by following the instructions here; use the slightly oddball notation of ``m5'' which generates a ``diminished triad''; or use the more-oddball notation ``dim3''. A more generic solution is to use TWEAKS to change between ``7th'' and ``triad'' (see here for details). Our recommendation is to use ``m5'' for the triad and ``dim7'' for the four note chord.
Notational notes: In printed music a ``diminished'' chord is sometimes represented with a small circle symbol (e.g., ``F o'') and a ``half-diminished'' as a small slashed circle (e.g., ``C ø''). MMA accepts this input so long as:
Charts sometimes use slash chords in the form ``Am/E''. This notation is used, mainly, to indicate chord inversions. For example, the chord notes in ``Am/E'' become ``E'', ``A'' and ``C'' with the ``E'' taking the root position. MMA will accept chords of this type. However, you may not notice any difference in the generated tracks due to the inversions used by the current pattern.
You may also encounter slash chords where the note after the ``slash'' is not a note in the chord. Consider the ambiguous notation ``Dm/C''. The composer (or copyist) might mean to add a ``C'' bass note to a ``Dm'' chord, or she might mean ``Dm7'', or even an inverted ``Dm7''. MMA will handle these ... almost perfectly. When the ``slash'' part of the chord indicates a note which is not a note in the chord, MMA assumes that the indicated note should be used in the bass line. Since each chord generated by MMA also has a ``scale'' associated with it for use by bass and scale patterns this works. For example, a C Major chord will have the scale ``c, d, e, f, g, a, b''; a C Minor chord has the same scale, but with an e. If the slash note is contained in the scale, the scale will be rotated so that the note becomes the ``root'' note.
A warning message will be printed if the note is not in the scale associated with the chord. In this case the slash part will have no effect. A list of chords which do use the specified note is listed and you might want to change the chord type to include the slashed note. For example, if you have the notation ``C/B'' you might want to change that to ``C7/B'' since the dominant seventh chord includes the ``B'' (note that a C major chord only has the notes ``c'', ``e'' and ``g'' in it, but its associated scale major has ``b'', not ``b'').
Another notation you may see is something like ``Dm/9''. Again, the meaning is not clear. It probably means a ``Dm9'', or ``Dm9/E'' ... but since MMA isn't sure this notation will generate an error.
As an option, you can use a Roman or Arabic numeral in the range ``I'' to ``VII'' or ``1'' to ``7'' to specify the bass note (sometimes referred to as ``fingered bass''). For example, to specify the bass note as the 5th in a C major chord you can use either G/D, G/V, or G/v. The Roman portion can be in upper or lower case.
Please note that, for fairly obvious reasons, you cannot have both slash notation and an inversion (see the next section).
To summarize how MMA handles slash notes:
For more details on ``slash chords'' your favorite music theory book or teacher is highly recommended!
In modern music chords can be quite complex and difficult to notate in anything but standard sheet music. In addition to the slash chords discussed above there are also POLYCHORDS. Simply stated a polychord is the result of two (or more) chords played at the same time. In traditional music theory this is notated as a fraction. So, a Dmajor chord combined with a Cseventh could be notated as D/C7. In traditional theory, the notes in the D chord would be played higher (above) the notes of the C7 chord.
MMA handles polychords by specifying the two parts joined by a ``pipe'' symbol. So, the example above would be notated as:
For optimal results, you should understand the process by which MMA creates the new chord:
Note that the scale list used by BASS and SCALE is the one belonging to the first chord; the second chord's octave is not adjusted; and no volume changes between the two chords are made. This means that you most likely should take care to ensure the following:
Chord Riff 1 2 90 85 80 75 70 65 60
which would generate a 2 beat chord with decreasing note velocities.
It is possible to combine slash, barre, octave and inversions with polychords. In the case of barre only the value for the first chord is used.
A cute trick is to create a ``pretend'' polychord by duplicating the chord into a higher octave. For example, the chord ``D¦+D'' will generate two D major chords an octave apart. You might use this to make a single bar sound brighter. If you are not hearing what you think should, examine the VOICING for the track--VOICING MODE=OPTIMAL will remove the duplicate notes you are trying to insert.
Instead of using a slash chord you can specify an inversion to use with a chord. The notation is simply an ``>'' and a number between -5 and 5 immediately following the chord name.
The chord will be ``rotated'' as specified by the value after the ``>''.
For example, the chord ``C>2'' will generate the notes G, C and E; ``F>-1'' gives C, F and A.
There is an important difference between this option and a slash chord: in inversions neither the root note nor the associated scale are modified.
The actual effect of a chord inversion will vary, perhaps greatly, depending on the VOICING mode. For example, using an inverted chord with VOICING MODE=OPTIMAL makes no difference at all, using with VOICING MODE=NONE (the default) gives the most difference.
It is possible to set a barre for a chord in a PLECTRUM track by adding a ``:'' and a value to the chordname. A barre setting must be the last item in a chordname and is only used by PLECTRUM tracks. Barre values must be in the range -20 to 20. Examples include ``Cm:3'', ``E7>2:-2'' and ``+F:4''.
Important: unlike a real instrument, MMA barre chords do not change the pitch (transpose) the chord. The same chord is played, but with a higher tonality.
Instead of standard chord symbol notation you can use roman numerals to specify chords. This is not the place for music theory, but, simply put, a roman numeral specifies an interval based on the current key. So, in the key of C Major a ''I'' would be a C major chord, ``V'' a G major, etc.
When using Roman numeral chords it is very important to set the KEYSIGnature! Failing to do this will result in undefined behavior.A.3 See here for details on setting the key signature.
MMA recognizes the following:
In addition, certain modifiers can be used to specify a chord quality (major, diminished, etc). These are appended to the roman numeral (without spaces). MMA is a bit lazy when it comes to the strict interpretation of chord qualities and permits many constructions which are technically incorrect (but work fine musically). Quality modifiers include the following:
Examples of roman numeral chords include ``I'', ``IV'', ``V7'', ``ii0'', ``V13'' and ``v13''.
Other chord modifiers such as octave adjustment, capo and inversions can be combined with roman numerals. So, ``I:3'', ``+ii>2'' and ``IV7>2:-2'' are legitimate.
When specifying chords in Roman numeral notation ``slash'' inversions should be specified in Arabic or Roman numerals, details here.A.4
MMA 's implementation differs from the standard in several ways:
To aid in debugging, a special DEBUG option ROMAN is provided. When enabled this will display the conversions for both Roman numeral chords and slash notation. See here for information to enable/disable this option.
When setting a voice for a track (i.e. Bass Voice NN), you can specify the patch to use with a symbolic constant. Any combination of upper and lower case is permitted. The following are the names with the equivalent voice numbers:
When defining a drum tone, you can specify the patch to use with a symbolic constant. Any combination of upper and lower case is permitted. In addition to the drum tone name and the MIDI value, the equivalent ``name'' in superscript is included. The ``names'' may help you find the tones on your keyboard.
When specifying a MIDI Controller in a MIDISEQ or MIDIVOICE command you can use the absolute value in (either as a decimal number or in hexadecimal by prefixing the value with a ``0x''), or the symbolic name in the following tables. The tables have been extracted from information at http://www.midi.org/about-midi/table3.shtml. Note that all the values in these tables are in hexadecimal notation.
Complete reference for this is not a part of MMA . Please refer to a detailed text on MIDI or the manual for your synthesizer.